我院兼职教授Ravi Jain教授编辑出版Environmental Implications of Mining and Mineral Processing: Crucial Economic Development and Environmental Issues
（Edited and published by Pro. Dr. Ravi Jain）
我院兼职教授Ravi Jain，现为欧洲科学院和美国环境工程科学院院士、美国太平洋大学工程与计算机科学学院荣誉院长。获加州州立大学学士和硕士，得克萨斯理工大学博士，哈佛大学MPA和英国剑桥大学高级学者等。曾任美国辛辛那提大学研究和国际工程学院副院长，麻省理工学院和伊利诺伊大学-香槟校区教授。现任并担任国际学术期刊《Clean Technology and Environmental Policy》主编，《Technology Transfer and Commercialization》副主编等。他共著有20本著作和发表了超过190篇的期刊论文，在工程管理领域有很高的学术造诣。Ravi Jain教授在我院作为兼职教授已经6年，为研究生开设课程3门次，指导青年教师和博士生论文写作20余篇。该专辑反映了近年来世界各国在采矿和选矿环境和安全方面的最新进展。有需要的可以到学院资料室查阅原文。以下是主要论文的中英文摘要。
Heavy metal pollution and accumulation in maize grown in arable soils located near a lead and zinc slag heap in Yunnan, Southwest China
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT AND POLLUTION卷: 59期: 2-4特刊: SI页: 97-115出版年: 2016
An investigation on heavy metals (HMs), Pb, Zn and Cd pollution and accumulation in maize grown in arable soils along a lead and zinc slag heap in Yunnan, Southwest China was conducted using multivariate statistical methods. Calculation of the Nemerow pollution index revealed that all sampled soils were heavily polluted. The concentrations of Pb, Zn and Cd in the maize samples presented a decreasing trend from roots to shoots to seeds, except for Zn (roots > seeds > shoots), and the content of HMs in the maize roots was positively correlated with both soil total and extractable HMs. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and dark septate endophytes (DSE) intensively colonised in the maize roots, and their functional roles are discussed in the soils contaminated by HMs. The study results showed that intensive mining and smelting activities contributing to soil metal contamination present a high metal-pollution risk for crops grown.
Keywords:heavy metal; Zea mays; rhizosphere soil; arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus; dark septate endophyte.
Ecosystem quality assessment of an aquatic habitat in a globally important boron reserve: Emet Stream Basin (Turkey)
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT AND POLLUTION卷: 59期: 2-4特刊: SI页: 116-141出版年: 2016
In this study, ecosystem quality of Emet Stream Basin was evaluated by investigating some water quality parameters and trace toxic element accumulations. According to data observed, the contaminated areas had much higher concentrations, an average of 20 times for water and 40 times for sediment in terms of arsenic and 30 times for water and 10 times for sediment in terms of boron than the uncontaminated areas. The amounts of arsenic in muscle tissues of Squalius cii, Capoeta tinca and Barbus oligolepis were much higher and the amounts of zinc in muscle tissues of C. tinca and B. oligolepis were higher than the limit values of Turkish Food Codex. According to results of factor analysis, three factors named as 'mining, agricultural and climate factors' explained 75.41% of the total variance and according to results of cluster analysis, three statistically significant clusters named as 'low, moderate and high polluted areas' were formed.
Keywords: Emet Stream Basin; arsenic; boron; factor analysis; cluster analasis; Turkey.
Modelling of chemical grout column permeated by water in transparent soil
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT AND POLLUTION卷: 59期: 2-4特刊: SI页: 142-155出版年: 2016
The process of injecting chemical grout into cohesionless soil and its permeation by water are simulated by using a transparent soil model and a finite element model (FEM). The urea-formaldehyde resin is used as the grouting material in the transparent soil modelling. Two black and white charge-coupled device cameras are mounted in an orthogonal position to provide a three dimensional view of the groundwater-grout interface. The groundwater-grout interface is primarily influenced by the advection of the flowing water with increasing distance from the injection point owing to the reduction in the grouting pressure. An equation based on fluid dynamics in porous media and Darcy's law is then proposed to predict the displacement of the groundwater-grout interface in flowing water. A numerical model based on the FEM is also developed to simulate this process. The numerical simulation results are found to match the physical modelling well.
Keywords: transparent soil; chemical grouting; grout column; flowing water.
Mechanical properties and failure mechanism of cemented red clay under chemical erosion environment
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT AND POLLUTION卷: 59期: 2-4特刊: SI页: 156-168出版年: 2016
This paper presents an experimental investigation on the strength behaviour of red clay improved by cement, considering initial water content, cement content and curing pH levels. Along with the unconfined compressive tests, acoustic emission signals were detected to investigate the compression failure. It was shown that unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of the cement red clay rose first and fell later with water content increasing, and maximum UCS was reached at omega = 75%. As cement content increased from 15% to 30% under water content of 75%, UCS of blocks increased from 1.03 MPa to 6.09 MPa. Stress-strain curves of blocks curing in acid condition were divided into four stages: microcracks closure, elastic deformation and stable crack propagation, rapid crack growth and final failure. Acoustic emission signals detected in compression process showed that a large number of microcracks occurred in the second stage with more in the third stage.
Keywords: red clay; cement soil; mechanical properties; failure mechanism; chemical corrosion; acoustic emission.
本文对水泥改良红粘土的强度特性进行了试验研究，试验中考虑了初始含水量、水泥含量和养护pH值对结果的影响。在无侧限抗压试验过程中，采用声发射技术对水泥土压缩破坏过程进行了监测。实验发现随着含水率的增加，水泥土的强度先增大后减小，在含水率为75%左右达到最大值。当水泥改良红粘土含水率为75%时，随着水泥含量从15%增加到30%，试块的无侧限抗压强度从1.03 MPa增加到6.09 MPa。在酸性条件下，试样的应力-应变曲线可以划分为四个阶段：微裂缝闭合、水泥土弹性变形与裂纹稳定扩展、裂纹快速发展、破坏失效四个阶段。无侧限抗压试验过程中检测到的声发射信号表明，在第二阶段和第三阶段产生了大量微裂纹。
Mitigating mine subsidence dynamically to minimise impacts on farmland and water resources: a case study
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT AND POLLUTION卷: 59期: 2-4特刊: SI页: 169-186出版年: 2016
Subsidence related to underground mining can negatively impact farmland and water resources. This paper has developed dynamic subsidence reclamation (DSR-reclamation concurrent with mining) approaches to minimise these impacts and are illustrated using a case study in China. Two reclamation plans using DSR and traditional reclamation (TR-reclamation upon completion of all mining) approaches were designed respectively. Then farmland utilisation, water resources development and cost-benefit analyses were performed for the two sets of plans. The results show that farmland and water resource utilisation by DSR is larger than TR throughout the mining period. Farmland utilisation by DSR increased as much as 12.94%. Similarly, final water volume by DSR was 15.01% more than TR. The total revenue using DSR increased by 24.17% as compared with TR over a ten year period. So, DSR can be a very positive and cost effective approach for protection of farmland and water resources.
Keywords: underground mining; subsidence; farmland; water resource; dynamic subsidence reclamation; DSR.
An experimental investigation on the permeability of chemically grouted sands and its application for mitigating underground sand and water inrushes
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT AND POLLUTION卷: 59期: 2-4特刊: SI页: 187-202出版年: 2016
This paper presents an experimental investigation on the hydraulic conductivity of coarse sand samples before and after chemical grouting. A newly developed device that applies aerostatic pressure is used to prepare the chemically grouted sand, which can also be used to simulate grouting into soil mass at different depths with different pumping pressures. A static high-pressure triaxial test system is then used to investigate the permeability of the chemically grouted sands under a high confining pressure. The experimental results show that chemical grouting obviously reduces the permeability of sand. The results also show that the hydraulic conductivity of the chemically grouted coarse sand increases with increased hydraulic gradients at a constant confining pressure. The hydraulic conductivity of the chemically grouted sand is generally reduced with increased confining pressure. However, under a high confining pressure, the hydraulic conductivity is increased with increases in the confining pressure owing to the rupture of the particles or samples. A case history is then presented, which uses chemical grouting to control groundwater seepage into a deep coalmine shaft and thus demonstrates the feasibility and durability of the use of chemical grouting as a ground treatment to prevent groundwater inrush from sand aquifers.
Keywords: sand and water inrushes; chemical grouting; high confining pressure; hydraulic conductivity; underground mining; shaft.
Image processing for erosion control of open-pit mines
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT AND POLLUTION卷: 59期: 2-4特刊: SI页: 203-212出版年: 2016
Soil erosion is one of the most severe land degradation problems afflicting many parts of the world where topography of the land is relatively steep. Owing to inaccessibility to this steep terrain, such as slopes in open-pit mines and forested mountains, advanced data processing techniques are required to identify and predict high risk erosion zones. Unlike existing methods that require human observations, which can be expensive and error-prone, the proposed approach uses a fully automated algorithm to indicate when an area is at risk of erosion; this is accomplished by processing Landsat and aerial images. In this paper, an image processing algorithm is presented to identify the scene of an image by classifying it in one of six categories: open-pit mine, mountain, forest, degraded forest, cropland, and grassland or orchard. This paper focuses on automatic scene detection using global features with local representations to show the gradient structure of an image. The output of this work counts as a contextual cueing and can be used in erosion detection, and for erosion control in a variety of applications; particularly, predicting erosion risks in open-pit mines. We also discuss the environmental implications of deferred erosion control in open-pit mines.
Keywords: contextual cueing; machine learning; soil erosion; erosion control; image processing.
The simulation of mine solid waste generation in Panzhihua City based on system dynamics
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT AND POLLUTION卷: 59期: 2-4特刊: SI页: 213-229出版年: 2016
In recent years, the scale of steel production in Panzhihua City - an important mining centre for black, non-ferrous metal in China - has rapidly doubled in response to the tremendous demand for industrial development, placing tremendous pressure on the environment. This paper simulates and predicts the discharge, treatment and reutilization of solid waste in the iron and steel industry by constructing a system dynamics model. The results show that the model can be applied effectively. The solid waste volume has a tendency to rapidly increase and the stripping ratio shows a decreasing trend. The reutilized volume of tailings increases substantially over time and the reutilized ratio in the environment scenario is higher than that in the current scenario.
Keywords：solid waste generation; Panzhihua City; system dynamics.
CFD modelling of dust dispersion in a room-and-pillar mining area
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT AND POLLUTION卷: 59期: 2-4特刊: SI页: 230-249出版年: 2016
This paper presents dust dispersion characteristics in a room-and-pillar mining face area using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling and tracking of dust particles without sprays operating. CFD use was validated with a published exponential decay behaviour experimental data. Simulations were conducted for two continuous miner cuts; each involving box and slab cuts. Particle size distribution (PSD) of in-mine dust samples collected from continuous miner wet-scrubbers was used for simulations. The dust particles ranged from 0.5-44 mu m. Data analyses were focused on PSD and dust particle tracks in different vertical and horizontal planes downwind of the cutting face. The coarser particles (similar to> 5 mu m) settled quickly under gravity, while the finer particles (similar to< 1 mu m) stayed suspended and travelled long distances. dust concentration varied from roof to floor with finer particles near the top and coarser particles near the bottom. the results were used as a validation for the concepts underlying the southern illinois university carbondale (siuc) innovative spray system. additional improvements were also identified for dust control.
Keywords: CFD modelling; coal dust control; particle size; dust concentration; SIUC innovative spray system.
本文通过建立计算流体力学模型，在无喷雾条件下追踪尘粒，对房柱式采煤工作面区域的煤尘扩散特性进行了研究。计算流体力学模型的应用验证了已发表的指数衰减特性试验数据。试验数值模拟了两次连续采煤机采掘带，每次模拟中都涉及到了运煤箱和纵切采煤。从连续采煤机中洗涤器中收集到矿井煤尘样本的粒度分布结果进行数值模拟。尘粒的粒径在0.5-44微米之间。数据分析主要集中于粒径分布和不同的垂直和水平面上煤尘粒子的轨道。较粗的颗粒(粒径> 5微米)在重力作用下迅速沉降，而较细的颗粒(粒径< 1微米)则处于悬浮状态，并扩散了较长的距离。从顶板到底板煤尘的浓度分布不均，在顶板附近存在细小的颗粒，底板附近存在有较粗的颗粒。此项研究结果验证了南伊利诺伊大学所提出的新型喷雾系统概念。此外，还对煤尘防治方面进行了改进。
Safety and environmental implications of coal mining
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT AND POLLUTION卷: 59期: 2-4特刊: SI页: 250-268出版年: 2016
This paper presents an investigation on the global issues associated with coal mining, including frequent accidents, occupational diseases and environmental impacts. These problems are caused by complex geological conditions, lack of technology implementation, human factors, lack of financial investment, and ineffective safety and environmental management. A comparison analysis of mine safety and environmental protection in selected coal producing countries is presented from the perspective of regulations and practices related to coal mining. The results show that comprehensive and stringent regulations, practical policies, and best practices have been developed to enhance coal mining safety and environmental protection in the past decades in coal producing countries. Risk assessment in coal mines is an important part of protecting workers and the environment, which includes three steps: risk identification, risk analysis, and risk evaluation. Some suggestions for controlling and preventing disasters, such as water inrush, coal dust, gas disaster, roof collapse, fire, and subsidence, are proposed for the improvement of mine safety and environmental impacts in coal mines in the future.
Keywords：mine safety; accidents; occupational diseases; environmental impacts; risk assessment; disaster control
Solidification characteristics and mechanisms of cement treated Pb/Zn contaminated soils from a mining site in Hunan Province, China
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT AND POLLUTION卷: 59期: 2-4特刊: SI页: 269-283出版年: 2016
This paper presents a study on the stabilization of mine soils from a mining site contaminated with heavy metals through the use of ordinary Portland cement (OPC). The aim of this study was to explore the effects of binder content (%), and the curing age of contaminated soils on the toxicity and strength properties of the contaminated soils using toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), acid-neutralising capacity (ANC) test. Sequential extraction procedure (BCR), unconfined compression test (UCT), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) procedures were carried out to analyse the solidification mechanisms. The results showed that as the curing time was increased from 0 d to 28 d, OPC stabilized contaminated soil underwent several changes: 1) leaching of Zn and Pb decreased; 2) ANC (beta) increased; 3) exchangeable Zn and Pb decreased; 4) residual contents increased; 5) strength improved.
Keywords: cement binder; pollution prevention; heavy metal contaminated soil; mining.
Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of landslide caused by underground mining subsidence and its monitoring
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT AND POLLUTION卷: 59期: 2-4特刊: SI页: 284-302出版年: 2016
Open-pit coal mines can recycle resources by underground coal mining but it will lead to subsidence of upper slope, and may cause geological environmental disasters such as landslides. A fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model of the slope stability in coal mining subsidence areas is proposed. Based on the model the evaluation of slope stability in the subsidence zone in Antaibao open pit coal mine is carried out. By conducting the qualitative and quantitative analyses simultaneously, the evaluation results are more scientific than the qualitative description only and semi-quantitative analysis. According to the results of stability evaluation division, to ensure the mine safety production in the danger zone, the monitoring network composed of 20 monitoring points successfully implements monitoring and forecasting for stable condition of slopes.
Keywords: mining site subsidence; fuzzy comprehensive evaluation; landslide; stability analysis; remote real-time monitoring.